This post covers the biography and principal writings of Hegel's realist contemporary, Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841). It begins a short series of posts aiming to shed light on the intellectual possibilities of Hegel's time and place through comparison with the contrasting ideas of Herbart.
The Life of Herbart
Early Life and Education
"Contradictions are destroyed by dictat."
die Widersprüche sind durch Machtsprüche vernichtet.
- the necessity of a substratum for the self
- the accidental character of experience and ideas and thus of the reality of the not-self.
Early Life as a Teacher
- Short Presentation of a Plan of Philosophical Lectures (1804)
- On the Critical Standpoint of Pestalozzi’s Method of Instruction (1805)
- Universal Pedagogy derived from the Purpose of Education (1806)
- On Philosophical Studies (1807)
- Universal Practical Philosophy (1808)
- Principal Points of Metaphysics (1809).
Years of Maturity (1809-33)
- On Cicero’s Philosophy (1811)
- On the Unassailability of the Schellingian Theory (1813)
- On my Conflict with the fashionable Philosophy of the Time (1814)
He also published a great deal on psychology:
- Psychological Remarks on Acoustics
- Psychological Studies on the Strength of given representations as a function of their duration
- Textbook of Psychology (1816)
- The Measurement of Attention (1822)
- On the Possibility and Necessity of applying Mathematics to Psychology (1822)
- Psychology as a Science, newly founded on Experience, Metaphysics and Mathematics (1824-25)
- Textbook of Introduction to Psychology (1813, 4th edition, 1837)
There were other more purely philosophical works. These include two short metaphysical works:
- Theory of Attraction as an elementary Principle of Metaphysics (1812)
- Philosophical Aphorisms (1813).
- General Metaphysics, with commencement of the Philosophical Theory of Nature (1828-29)
- Brief Encyclopaedia of Philosophy from a Practical Viewpoint (1831)
Last Years at Göttingen (1833-1841)
- Sketch of lectures on Pedagogy
- Analytical Examination of Natural Law and Morality (1836)
- Letters on the Theory of Freedom and of Human Will (1836)