This post covers the biography and principal writings of Hegel's realist contemporary, Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841). It begins a short series of posts aiming to shed light on the intellectual possibilities of Hegel's time and place through comparison with the contrasting ideas of Herbart.
The Life of Herbart
Early Life and Education
"Contradictions are destroyed by dictat."
die Widersprüche sind durch Machtsprüche vernichtet.
Early Life as a Teacher
On the Critical Standpoint of Pestalozzi’s Method of Instruction (1805)
Universal Pedagogy derived from the Purpose of Education (1806)
On Philosophical Studies (1807)
Universal Practical Philosophy (1808)
Principal Points of Metaphysics (1809).
He analyses what the teacher should expect to accomplish in a lesson. The last work summarises the ideas of his later work. He left Göttingen in 1809 to take up an academic appointment.
Years of Maturity (1809-33)
On the Unassailability of the Schellingian Theory (1813)
Herbart avoided controversy and polemic, save after the 1813 essay on Schelling, when he wrote a reply:
He also published a great deal on psychology:
Psychological Remarks on Acoustics
Psychological Studies on the Strength of given representations as a function of their duration
The Measurement of Attention (1822)
On the Possibility and Necessity of applying Mathematics to Psychology (1822)
went through several edition. Hartenstein places it above the works of Kant and Hegel in his estimation.
There were other more purely philosophical works. These include two short metaphysical works:
Last Years at Göttingen (1833-1841)
Analytical Examination of Natural Law and Morality (1836)
Letters on the Theory of Freedom and of Human Will (1836)
This latter period is thus of less interest.